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This list relates to the year 2016/17 which ended on 30/09/2017
This list has been archived
  1. Real world research: a resource for users of social research methods in applied settings - Colin Robson 2011

    Book Supplementary Recommended by PhD student for this module

  2. A beginner's guide to evidence-based practice in health and social care - Helen Aveyard, Pam Sharp c2013

    Book Supplementary Useful resource - especially for developing critical appraisal skills

  3. The foundations of research - Jonathan Grix 2010

    Book Recommended A good alternative to Dyson & Brown, but you may need to purchase for yourselves until more copies can be made available in the library

  4. Understanding hermeneutics - Lawrence K. Schmidt 2006

    Book Supplementary If you are using hermeneutics for your own research this is a useful resource

  5. Social research methods - Alan Bryman 2016

    Book Recommended Good introductory research text that supports module topics

  6. Weekly readings 71 items
    1. Week 1: INTRODUCTION TO MODULE AND ASSUMPTIONS IN EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE 8 items
      1. Social theory and applied health research - Simon Dyson, Brian Brown 2006

        Book Essential Please read chapter 1

      2. Social theory and applied health research - Simon Dyson, Brian Brown, ebrary, Inc 2006 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Please read chapter 1

      3. Varieties of social research: a typology. - Martyn Hammersley 2000

        Article Essential This article talks about the tension between basic and applied work and how this has increased within the social sciences, as a result of both internal and external trends towards greater emphasis on the application and impact of research.

      4. Criticisms of Evidence–Based Medicine - Aaron Michael Cohen, William R. Hersh 2004

        Article Essential This SHORT guest editorial briefly summarises the criticisms of Evidence Based Medicine EBM under five main themes ...but be mindful that it was published in 2004 so is 'out of date' in EBM terms!

      5. Evidence based practice and its critics: what is a nurse manager to do? - Peter O’Halloran, Sam Porter, Bronagh Blackwood 2010

        Article Essential This (relatively short) 2010 article concludes that Nursing managers should neither abandon Evidence Based Practice (EBP) nor accept it uncritically - what do YOU think?

      6. What counts as evidence in evidence-based practice? - Jo Rycroft-Malone, Kate Seers, Angie Titchen, Gill Harvey 2004

        Article Essential This 2003 (relatively old) paper describes characteristics of a broad (but robust) evidence base for practice, by presenting ideas that challenge more traditional approaches to evidence-based practice. Authors promote the position that the delivery of effective, evidence-based patient-centred care will only be realized when a broader definition of what counts as evidence is embraced.

      7. Beyond synthesis: augmenting systematic review procedures with practical principles to optimise impact and uptake in educational policy and practice - Chris Green, Celia Taylor, Sharon Buckley, Sarah Hean 02/07/2016

        Article Recommended Chris Green (previous module lead for HS947) is currently Interprofessional Learning Lead and Programme Lead for Medical and Clinical Education in HHS. The paper prmotes the view that whilst systematic reviews, meta-analyses and other forms of synthesis are considered amongst the most valuable forms of research evidence, their limited impact on educational policy and practice has been criticised. Authors analyse why systematic reviews do not benefit users of evidence more consistently and suggest how review teams can optimise the impact of their work

      8. TASKS TO COMPLETE IN WEEK 1

        1. Undertake some of the broad and specific reading suggested for this week
        2. Contribute to discussion forum on Moodle about evidence based healthcare
        3. Email short summary of your anticipated research 

    2. Week 2:INTRODUCTION TO PARADIGMS IN HEALTH RESEARCH 11 items
      E-LEARNING
      1. Explaining the unexplained? Overcoming the distortions of a dualist understanding of medically unexplained illness - Vincent Deary 2005

        Article Essential Deary (2005) is essential reading as it provides a clear overview of philosophy from the Enlightenment to postmodernism. Deary challenges assumptions regarding mind and body and biomedicalised view of disease to provide a historical context within which philosophical positions are embedded. Deary's work makes reference to understanding disease processes (with a little bit of neuroscience!) After you have read it, think about whether you find yourself agreeing with this view of the world and what is excluded from this viewpoint.

      2. Body Mass Index, masculinities and moral worth: men's critical understandings of ‘appropriate’ weight-for-height - Lee F. Monaghan 2007

        Article Essential Reading will provide a good level of understanding of the role of critical realism in health and social care settings and is chosen to illustrate how critical realist perspectives have been applied and defended (in terms of philosophical assumptions) in research papers. Monaghan (2007) explores body mass index (BMI) and masculinity from a realist perspective.

      3. A realist study of the mechanisms of cardiac rehabilitation - Alexander M Clark, Heather K Whelan, Rosaline Barbour, Paul D MacIntyre 2005

        Article Essential Reading will provide a good level of understanding of the role of critical realism in health and social care settings and is chosen to illustrate how critical realist perspectives have been applied and defended (in terms of philosophical assumptions) in research papers. Clark et al (2005) applies Pawson & Tilley's framework for realist evaluation to assess a cardiac rehabilitation programme.

      4. Using critical realism in nursing and health research: promise and challenges - Jan E Angus, Alexander M Clark 2012

        Article Supplementary Reading will provide a good level of understanding of the role of critical realism in health and social care settings and is chosen to illustrate how critical realist perspectives have been applied and defended (in terms of philosophical assumptions) in research papers. This paper refers to and applies philosophical work of Roy Bhasker and Margaret Archer.

      5. Evaluating complex public health interventions: theory, methods and scope of realist enquiry - James B. Connelly 2007

        Article Supplementary Reading will provide a good level of understanding of the role of critical realism in health and social care settings and is chosen to illustrate how critical realist perspectives have been applied and defended (in terms of philosophical assumptions) in research papers. This paper refers to and applies philosophical work of Roy Bhasker and Margaret Archer.

      6. People's ways of knowing: gender and methodology - Ann Oakley

        Article Recommended Constructionist perspectives inform many of the newer methodological approaches associated with feminist and emancipatory research, discourse theory, science and technology studies, postmodernism and the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Recommended article by Anne Oakley, provides a useful discussion of research epistemologies from a feminist perspective

      7. Self-harm and the words that bind: a critique of common perspectives - S. Allen 2007

        Article Recommended The issue of self-harm is not only a widespread phenomenon but also a challenging one.This paper offers a critical appraisal of common perspectives as reported in the existing literature and proposes self-harm may be considered from a position of social constructionism

      8. Learning to be a psychologist: the construction of identity in an online forum - C. Perrotta 2006

        Article Supplementary Constructionism in action is illustrated, using social constructionism as a lens to illuminate how the professional identities of psychologists are constructed through online interactions

      9. Three epsitemological stances for qualitative inquiry: interpretivism, hermeneutics and social constructivism - Thomas A. Schwandt

        Chapter Essential Provides a relatively accessible text (read p191-194) that introduces approaches to interpretivism. You will need to have read this as background for week 5

      10. Community Matters: Resources: A brief introduction to realism

        Webpage Essential A summary introduction to realism can be downloaded from this site

      11. TASKS FOR WEEK 2

        • Read Chapter 2 of core text Dyson & Brown (2006)
        • Undertake some other recommended reading
        • Use discussion forum on Moodle as an opportunity to describe your own research topic (activity linked to week 1 discussion forum)

    3. Week 3: ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT THEORY AND METHOD IN HEALTH RESEARCH 1 item
      TAUGHT Make sure reading/tasks are up to date
      1. TASKS FOR WEEK 3

        • Broad and specific reading
        • Contribute to discussion forum 

    4. Week 4: POSITIVISM AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 5 items
      E-LEARNING
      1. Observations on positivism and pseudoscience in qualitative nursing research - Martin Johnson 1999

        Article Essential There is often a simplistic assumption that quantitative research is positivist and qualitative research is interpretivist i.e. that quantitative and qualitative research are philosophical opposites. This dualism may be unhelpful - read this critique of dualism that suggests a lot of qualitative research makes fundamentally positivist assumptions.

      2. Clinical effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in UK primary care (CADET): cluster randomised controlled trial - D. A. Richards, J. J. Hill, L. Gask, K. Lovell 19/08/2013

        Article Essential Popperian notions of hypothetico-deduction are well illustrated by the randomised controlled trial (RCT) as it resides at the heart of positivist endeavour in medical and health intervention-testing. Paper provides a good example of a randomised controlled trial

      3. How to spot bias and other potential problems in randomised controlled trials - S C Lewis 2004

        Article Essential Popperian notions of hypothetico-deduction are well illustrated by the randomised controlled trial (RCT) as it resides at the heart of positivist endeavour in medical and health intervention-testing. RCTs are designed to reduce methodological bias (i.e. they are deemed to provide 'robust' evidence). However, bias is unavoidable. This paper offers advice about identifying sources of bias in RCTs (useful for critical appraisal skills modules too!)

      4. Dr. Golem: how to think about medicine - H. M. Collins, T. J. Pinch, dawsonera 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter one (pages 18 to 34), it is accessible and interesting to see how the assumptions of RCTs are illustrated. You may be left feeling a little less confident about the effectiveness of pharmacology or anything that has a blind control group after reading this!

      5. TASKS WEEK 4

        • Broad and specific reading
        • Contribute to discussion forum 

    5. Week 5: PHENOMENOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 15 items
      E-LEARNING
      1. Understanding hermeneutics - Lawrence K. Schmidt 2006

        Book Recommended Useful resource if you are using hermeneutics for your own research

      2. Interpretivism and Generalisation - M. Williams 2000

        Article Essential This paper explores questions regarding the usefulness of interpretive research. How can interpretive research be generalisable and, therefore, 'useful' for clinicians and health research?

      3. Misinterpretive phenomenology: Heidegger, ontology and nursing research - John Paley 04/1998

        Article Recommended Paley argues Heidegger's phenomenology does not have methodological implications usually ascribed to it in nursing literature and concludes that social enquiry in nursing is not therefore confined to studies of lived experience

      4. The meaning of mental health nurses experience of providing one-to-one observations: a phenomenological study - C. ROONEY 2009

        Article Essential This paper illustrates how Husserlian phenomenology has been applied in a health related study of how mental health nurses experience one-to-one observations.

      5. The lived experience of freezing in people with Parkinson's: an interpretive phenomenological approach...including commentary by Earhart GM - Lucy Redmond, Kitty Suddick 2012

        Article Essential This paper explores lived experience of freezing in people with Parkinson's using an interpretive phenomenological approach that illuminates how Heideggerian assumptions can be applied in health research.

      6. Only a whisper away. A philosophical view of the awake patient's situation during regional anaesthetics and surgery - Ann-Christin Karlsson, Margaretha Ekebergh, Annika Larsson Mauléon, Sofia Almerud Österberg 2012

        Article Essential The philsophy of Merleau-Ponty has often been applied in health research after the research has taken place, to reinterpret understanding. This paper is an exemplar case of the embodied experience of receiving regional anaesthesia and therefore being awake during surgery.

      7. Boundaries around the 'well-informed' patient: the contribution of Schutz to inform nurses' interactions - Amanda Henderson 2006

        Article Supplementary In the social world, actors have inter-subjective experiences that are individual, but also experienced as common and shared with other actors. In a Schutzian analysis, the subjective meanings attached by actors to their everyday experiences must be grasped. There is an assumption that lived experience is drawn from past experiences of interaction with others to create a stock of knowledge. This paper demonstrates how an understanding of inter-subjectivity can allow patients to become "informed citizens".

      8. Understanding ethnography. - Taniya Roberts 2009

        Article Recommended This paper introduces the concept of ethnography, its background, its methods of data collection and analysis, and its application to midwifery research to aid understanding of this research methodology

      9. Ethnography: a suitable approach for providing an inside perspective on the everyday lives of health professionals. - Thomson D 2011

        Article Recommended This paper provides a rationale for the use of ethnography, using an inside perspective on the everyday lives of health professionals as an example. By observing health professionals at work, and their social interactions, it is possible to gain an understanding of their experiences and the meanings they ascribed to these experiences. The article describes the key methods of data collection – participant observation and interviewing – along with the ongoing process of analysis. Issues related to the challenge of gaining access, the insider/outsider status of the researcher and the ethical issues involved in carrying out ethnographic research are also addressed.It is argued that ethnography is a useful methodology in healthcare research because it captures a holistic understanding of the social and cultural world of health professionals.

      10. Hermeneutic Phenomenology and Phenomenology: A Comparison of Historical and Methodological Considerations - Susann M. Laverty 2008

        Article Recommended This paper provides a discussion of essential similarities and differences between hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology from historical and methodological perspectives. Consideration is given to philosophical bases, assumptions, focus of research and research outcomes that differentiate these approaches

      11. The presentation of self in everyday life - Erving Goffman 1990

        Book Recommended Erving Goffman (1922–1982) developed a dramaturgical theory of the self and society inspired by Mead’s basic conception of social interaction. In the selection provided, excerpted from the book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Goffman presents a theory that likens social interaction to the theatre. Individuals can be seen as performers, audience members, and outsiders that operate within particular “stages” or social spaces. Goffman suggests that how we present our selves to others is aimed toward “impression management,” which is a conscious decision on the part of the individual to reveal certain aspects of the self and to conceal others, as actors do when performing on stage.

      12. The use of focused ethnography in nursing research. - Edward Venzon Cruz, Gina Higginbottom 2013

        Article Recommended This paper explains how/why orthodox ethnographic approaches may not always be suitable or desirable for research in diverse nursing contexts. Focused ethnography has emerged as a promising method for applying ethnography to a distinct issue or shared experience in cultures or sub-cultures and in specific settings, rather than throughout entire communities. This paper provides descriptions of focused ethnography and discusses using exemplars to show how focused ethnographies can enhance and understand nursing practice.

      13. Implementing and adopting electronic health record systems - Kathrin Cresswell, Allison Worth, Aziz Sheikh 2011

        Article Recommended This paper makes use of the introduction of electronic health records, part of the English National Programme of Information Technology, as an example to illustrate how theoretical lenses need to be effectively integrated with practical considerations in order to help researchers to overcome the theory-practice gap in relation to research in this area.

      14. Supporting staff to respond effectively to informal complaints: findings from an action research study - Helen T Allan, Ann Christine Odelius, Billie J Hunter, Karen Bryan 08/2015

        Article Recommended Collaborative action research design that reports findings of data collection undertaken in one National Health Service trust during 2011–2014

      15. TASKS WEEK 5

        1. Broad and specific reading
        2. Schwandt (2003) (week 2) provides a relatively accessible text (read p191-194) and will help you make sense of topics this week.
        3. Contribute to discussion forum 

    6. Week 6: GROUNDED THEORY 8 items
      E-LEARNING
      1. The role of felt or enacted criticism in understanding parent's help seeking in acute childhood illness at home: A grounded theory study - Sarah J. Neill, Sarah Cowley, Clare Williams 2013

        Article Essential Classic Grounded Theory Methodology (can you discern positivistic assumptions?)

      2. Nurse–patient collaboration: A grounded theory study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on non-invasive ventilation - Dorthe Sørensen, Kirsten Frederiksen, Thorbjoern Groefte, Kirsten Lomborg 2013

        Article Recommended Classic Grounded Theory Methodology (can you discern positivistic assumptions?)

      3. ‘Finding home’: a grounded theory on how older people ‘find home’ in long-term care settings - Adeline Cooney 2012

        Article Recommended Draws on 'classic' Strauss and Corbin Can you see elements of interactionism? Does the author assume an objective social reality or multiple subjective realities?

      4. Student nurses' attitudes to illicit drugs: A grounded theory study - Martyn R. Harling, Warren Turner 2012

        Article Essential Good example of constructivist grounded theory in action

      5. What contributes to abuse in health care? A grounded theory of female patients? stories - A. Jelmer Brggemann, Katarina Swahnberg 2013

        Article Recommended Good example of constructivist grounded theory in action - can you discern relativist assumptions in this paper?

      6. One more chemo or one too many? Defining the limits of treatment and innovation in medical oncology - Isabelle Baszanger 2012

        Article Essential Good example of constructivist grounded theory in action - can you discern relativist assumptions in this paper?

      7. TASKS WEEK 6

        • Broad and specific reading
        • Contribute to discussion forum 

    7. Week 7: ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT THEORY AND METHOD IN HEALTH RESEARCH 1 item
      TAUGHT Make sure reading/tasks are completed for previous weeks
      1. TASKS WEEK 7

        • Broad and specific reading
        • Contribute to discussion forum

    8. Week 8: ESTABLISHING RIGOUR IN RESEARCH 13 items
      E-LEARNING
      1. Social theory and applied health research - Dyson & Brown (2006). Read Chapter 7 'Validity and Reliability'which encourages the reader to look at 'taken-for-granted-ideas about methodological criteria used to establish 'rigour' in research. 

        Read Chapter 10 'credibility, trustworthiness and authenticity in research' which reviews the relationship between background assumptions made by the researcher and the quesion of how to assess the credibility of research

      2. Reflexivity: A challenge for the researcher as practitioner? - A. Arber 2006

        Article Essential As you read this paper, reflect on whether you think reflexivity is a methodological virtue that provides superior insight and awareness through self-criticism. Can it really enhance objectivity by eradicating bias?

      3. Methodological Issues in Qualitative Research for the Researcher/Practitioner - A. L. Conneeley 2002

        Article Recommended As you read this paper, reflect on whether you think reflexivity is a methodological virtue that provides superior insight and awareness through self-criticism.

      4. Use of reflexivity in a mixed-methods study. - Susan Walker, Susan Read, Helena Priest 2013

        Article Essential Can reflexivity enhance objectivity by eradicating bias?

      5. Exploring Participant-centred Reflexivity in the Research Interview - K. Riach 2009

        Article Essential Please read from bottom of page 360 to page 368 and think about how this material links to broader issues and debates concerning the status of interview data

      6. Research update: validity and reliability -- what's it all about? Part 1: validity in quantitative studies. - A Twycross, L. Shields 2004

        Article Essential Establishing validity and reliability - positivist terms (it's a short article!)

      7. Reliability and Validity of the Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Andrea N. Witwer, Luc Lecavalier, Megan Norris 2012

        Article Recommended Study examines reliability and validity of a psychiatric scale - any issues with this approach?

      8. Verbicide. - J Boyd 2008

        Article Supplementary Article talks about the language of validity and reliability

      9. The jargon wheel and the total library: the problem of reliability in the research interview - G. Rolfe 2010

        Article Recommended Article responds to Boyd's (2008) paper - second half is particularly insightful

      10. Quality in qualitative evaluation: a framework for assessing research evidence - Liz Spencer, Great Britain. Cabinet Office. Strategy Unit 2004 (electronic resource)

        Document Supplementary Spencer, Ritchie, Lewis and Dillon (National Centre for Social Research) present a framework for appraising the quality of qualitative evaluations. It was developed with particular reference to evaluations concerned with the development and implementation of social policy, programmes and practice.

      11. Qualitative Quality: Eight "Big-Tent" Criteria for Excellent Qualitative Research - S. J. Tracy 2010

        Article Supplementary This article presents a model for quality in qualitative research that is uniquely expansive, yet flexible, in that it makes distinctions among qualitative research’s means (methods and practices) and its ends.

      12. TASKS WEEK 8

        • Broad and specific reading
        • Contribute to discussion forum

    9. Week 9: PRAGMATISM/MIXING METHODS 8 items
      E-LEARNING
      1. Unmixing Mixed-Methods Research - Margarete Sandelowski 2014

        Article Essential

      2. Mixed Methods: In search of a paradigm - Ralph Hall

        Chapter Essential

      3. Methodological triangulation: an approach to understanding data. - Abir K. Bekhet, Jaclene A. Zauszniewski 2012

        Article Supplementary

      4. TASKS WEEK 9

        • Broad and specific reading
        • Contribute to discussion forum

    10. Week 10:DICHOTOMIES IN THEORY AND METHOD 1 item
      E-LEARNING
      1. TASKS WEEK 10

        • Broad and specific reading
        • contribute to discussion forum

    11. Week 11:ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT THEORY AND METHOD IN HEALTH RESEARCH 0 items
      FINAL TAUGHT to include guidance for assignment preparation and student evaluation of module. Please ensure all reading and Moodle activities etc are completed
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